《病虫害管理科学》宣布抗杀草剂转基因作物游戏结束,转基因专家可以哭丧了!
来源:新浪博客 2016/11/24 12:38:44 作者:吕永岩
字号:AA+

导读: 当农民正试图用其它除草剂来对付对草甘膦产生抗性的杂草之时,一篇新发表的经同行评议的文章却看到了“化学和转基因跑步机”的末日之路。

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当农民正试图用其它除草剂来对付对草甘膦产生抗性的杂草之时,一篇新发表的经同行评议的文章却看到了“化学和转基因跑步机”的末日之路。

The widespread planting of GM glyphosate-tolerant crops has led to the spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds. Attempts to control the weeds through the use

of other herbicides are not always effective as weeds often are resistant to those chemicals too, even before they are used. At best this practice can provide only a temporary solution.

转基因抗草甘膦作物的广泛种植导致了抗草甘膦杂草的扩散。试图通过使用其它除草剂来控制杂草并不总是有效,因为杂草常常甚至会在那些化学试剂使用之前就对它们有了抗性。在最好的情况下,这种方法也只能暂时解决问题。

These are some of the findings of an important new scientific paper(abstract below), which concludes, “Herbicide and seed businesses are not going to be able to support what critics call the chemical and transgenic treadmills for much longer.”

这些是一篇重要的新科学文献的研究结果(摘要如下),该文章总结道,“除草剂和种子公司将无法长期支撑被批评者称作为化学和转基因跑步机的运作。”

The rise and future of glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops

草甘膦和抗草甘膦作物的出现和未来 作者:Jerry M. Green Pest Management Science 2016 Oct18.

《病虫害管理科学》,2016年10月18日

链接:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27758090

Abstract Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits. Unfortunately, companies have not discovered a new commercial herbicide mode-of-action for over 30 years and have already developed or are developing traits for all existing herbicide types with high utility. Glyphosate mixtures and glyphosate trait combinations will be the mainstays of weed management for many growers, but are not going to be enough to keep up with the capacity of weeds to evolve resistance. Glufosinate, auxin, HPPD-inhibiting and other herbicide traits, even when combined with glyphosate resistance, are incremental and temporary solutions. Herbicide and seed businesses are not going to be able to support what critics call the chemical and transgenic treadmills for much longer. The long time without the discovery of a new herbicide mode-of-action and the epidemic of resistant weeds is forcing many growers to spend much more to manage weeds and creating a worst of times, best of times predicament for the crop protection and seed industry.

摘要:草甘膦和抗草甘膦作物对杂草管理实践有着革命性的影响,但是抗草甘膦杂草的盛行正快速降低这些技术的价值。在完全采用草甘膦和抗草甘膦作物的地区,抗草甘膦杂草已经进化,现在草甘膦以及抗草甘膦性状必须与其它技术相结合。化学公司的解决之道是将草甘膦与其它化学试剂结合起来,而种子公司的解决之道则是将抗草甘膦性状与其它性状结合起来。遗憾的是,30年来,公司再没能发明具有新作用机理的商用除草剂,因此只能开发或正在开发能抵抗现有除草剂的性状,而这些除草剂已经被大量使用过了。草甘膦混合物和草甘膦性状的结合对许多种植者来说仍然会是主要手段,但这将不足以应对杂草进化出抗性的能力。即使与抗草甘膦性状相结合,草铵膦、植物生长素(译注:即2,4-D,其前身即越战中臭名昭著的橙剂)、HPPD酶抑制剂和其它除草剂性状也只能是边际的和暂时性的解决方法。除草剂和种子公司将无法长期支撑被批评者称作为化学和转基因跑步机的运作。由于长期未能发明具新作用机理的除草剂,再加上抗性杂草的盛行,这迫使许多种植者花费更多成本来控制杂草,对作物保护和种子工业来说,则陷入了一个最糟的时代和最好的时代相对立的困境。

(译者注:也许读者对“试图通过使用其它除草剂来控制杂草并不总是有效,因为杂草常常甚至会在那些化学试剂使用之前就对它们有了抗性”这句话不能理解,实际上,结合“摘要”里提到的“30年来,公司再没能发明具有新作用机理的商用除草剂,因此只能开发或正在开发能抵抗现有除草剂的性状,而这些除草剂已经被大量使用过了”这句话就容易理解了,也就是说因为近30年未发明新除草剂,所以只能向新开发的转基因作物中引入抗那些旧除草剂的性状,以便对这些新的转基因作物使用这些老旧而更具毒性的除草剂,但由于过去曾经大量使用过这些除草剂,所以早就已经有了对它们具有抗性的杂草,所以说向转基因作物中引入更多抗草甘膦之外的其它除草剂性状的技术,并不总是有效,最好的情况下,其功效也只是暂时的。)

 翻译:jrry86;原文链接: http://gmwatch.org/news/latest-news/17338-superweeds-it-s-game-over-for-gm-herbicide-tolerant-crops

原标题:《病虫害管理科学》宣布抗杀草剂转基因作物游戏结束,转基因专家可以哭丧了!

责编:胡玲莉 (如涉版权请联系banquan@haijiangzx.com  转载请注明海疆在线)

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